目前国外常用抗甲流药物:

1。是达菲oseltamivir (Tamiflu®),又称奥司他韦,瑞士产,

2。是乐感清,zanamivir (Relenza®), 又称扎那米韦,英国产,

已经买好了达菲, 却怎么也找不到乐感清,一查,才发现它没通过一些安全性测试。

原文如下,“The safety, effectiveness, and stability of zanamivir use by nebulisation have not been established and the use of the product via nebuliser has not been approved by the TGA.” 在美国虽然有使用它(由总统令将急需药物从绿色通道上市),但是由于安全性还没经过确认,美国TGA没有批准它上市,且在美国已经有了使用它的死亡案例。

出现流感症状后,最好在48小时内立即使用抗流感药物。目前普通流感,及H1N1流感都对这两种药敏感。

The most useful anti-influenza medications for treating and preventing infection with influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors – oseltamivir (trade name: Tamiflu®) and zanamivir (trade name: Relenza®). H1N1 influenza 09, seasonal H3N2, and influenza B viruses are currently sensitive to oseltamivir. A large proportion seasonal H1N1 influenza A strains are resistant to oseltamivir, but they are sensitive to zanamivir. However, in July 2009, the large majority of influenza strains circulating were either H1N1 influenza 09 or seasonal H3N2, and therefore sensitive to both oseltamivir and zanamivir.

澳洲政府提供的该类药物使用方法:

Anti-influenza treatment with zanamivir or oseltamivir should be initiated as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms. Evidence for benefits from treatment in studies of seasonal influenza is strongest when treatment is started within 48 hours of illness onset. However, some studies of treatment of seasonal influenza have indicated benefit, including reduction in mortality or duration of hospitalization, even for patients whose treatment was started more than 48 hours after illness onset.

Recommended duration of treatment is five days. The doses recommended are the same for treatment of all viral strains – whether H1N1 influenza 09 or seasonal influenza. The recommended doses for adults or children 1 year of age or older are presented below. Safety data on the use of oseltamivir in younger children is limited. Retrospective data from the use of oseltamivir for seasonal influenza in children younger than one year have not demonstrated age-specific drug-attributable toxicities. If oseltamivir is considered for use in children younger than one year, a careful assessment of the potential risks and benefits is required and it is recommended that this occurs in consultation with a paediatrician.

Agent, Group Treatment
Oseltamivir
Adults & Children ≥ 13 yrs 75mg twice per day for 5 days
Children (12 months to 12 yrs)
≤15 kg 30mg twice per day for 5 days
16-23kg 45mg twice per day for 5 days
24-40kg 60mg twice per day for 5 days
>40 kg 75mg twice per day for 5 days
Zanamivir
Adults Two 5mg inhalations (10mg total) twice per day for 5 days
Children (5 yrs or older) Two 5mg inhalations (10mg total) twice per day for 5 days